Holocaust

Stand With Anne

anne frankOne of the most frequently asked questions of me is ‘what age should my child be to read The Diary of Anne Frank’? To which there is no correct answer because every child develops at their own rate, in terms of reading level, emotional intelligence, and contextual awareness. There is no age too early to introduce the idea of a girl called Anne who is set apart because she is different – this is something children may encounter as young as nursery age. (Early years schoolchildren do not tend to notice race or religion, but prejudices can take hold, and children may feel set apart or left out and viewed as different simply because they have a snotty nose or a different colour skin). However even adults can find it hard to understand the Holocaust.

As adult ‘gatekeepers’ it is worth bearing in mind that primary school children may find the actual diaries of Anne Frank hard going. They are intimate in the extreme, they tell the innermost thoughts of a teenager, and they don’t hold back – Anne had little to distract her within the confines of her hiding place – and so her written thoughts were her comfort. It’s worth bearing in mind that initially Anne wrote free form, but after a while she edited and amended the entries, hoping that it would be published.

Tomorrow, June 12th, 2019, Anne Frank would have been 90 years old had she survived. Her memory lives on though, and to celebrate her contribution to literature, education, social history and of course to make sure that the Holocaust is never forgotten, I want to share with you a book that you can give to a younger child in order for them to understand who Anne Frank was. Little Guides to Great Lives is a well-established series now, but this past April they published: Anne Frank by Isabel Thomas, illustrations by Paola Escobar.

The book explains with good simplicity and brevity the context of the world in which Anne lived before delving into the details, and it is this simplicity that helps to situate Anne within a framework that younger children can understand. For most of them, comprehending that Anne Frank died as one of six million Jews put to death by the Nazis is hard, because at primary school they are still figuring out place value – and how can you reconcile such a large figure when even 1000’s are hard to deal with, let alone the concept of death, and murder.

The text doesn’t shy away from the bare facts – it explains that the Nazis were trying to ‘wipe out all Jews living in Europe,’ among others, and so Anne had to go into hiding.

But to help the younger child try to understand Anne and to feel akin with her, there are some poignant and lovely touches in the book. We get to know her as a child first: she looks after her cat, eats ice cream, plans her next birthday – and in a speech bubble the illustration shows Anne riding her bike, and saying ‘Just like you, I was excited about the future.’ This is not about something far away, confined to history, in another world. This is relatable to the here and now. Once we understand Anne the person, we can begin to understand the immensity of what happened to her, the persecution around her, and how if it affected just one person in this way, maybe we can zoom out from the intimacy and try to understand the enormity of what happened to all those millions of people.

When Anne’s family is forced into hiding, the book highlights Anne’s frustration, showing a cutaway diagram of the cramped space, and the number of people sharing it, as well as pointing out Anne’s daily routine and all the times she had to be quiet so as not to be discovered. Looking at 13 year old girls around me, this is hard to imagine.

The book is fairly long at 64 pages, but is good at showing Anne’s extensive creativity, her intelligence, and the tension within the hiding place, as well as explaining all the context of Nazi rule outside the apartment. It also doesn’t hide the truth of what happened in the end, not just to Anne but to her family, and to all the people on that same train to Auschwitz – half of whom were immediately put to death on arrival.

This is one of the more insightful books for younger readers on the Holocaust. It deals with the reality of the topic with straightforward simple prose, and clever, interesting illustrations that help to illuminate the very difficult topic that this is. It even gives a simple background as to why the German people believed Nazi propaganda about the Jewish people, and explores the transition of prisons to concentration camps to places of execution.

With parental guidance, this is a good book to disseminate the background to Anne’s life, the reason for the diary, and most importantly the motivation as to why we all need to keep reading it and reminding ourselves of what Anne went through:

“Anne’s diary has helped generations of people to understand the impact of war on human beings. It reminds us that the things we have in common are far more important than what makes us different. Read Anne’s diary and let her inspire you to make the world a better place!”

Perhaps by remembering Anne, we can practise tolerance of those who have a different culture, race, or religion, and not use them as scapegoats.

With a timeline and glossary, this is both an excellent companion to the diary itself, and a good precursor. Illustrated throughout in two-tone. #NeverForget

You can buy a copy here.

Holocaust Memorial Day

Today is Holocaust Memorial Day. So it’s fitting that in primary school library book club this week we were looking at the theme of diaries. My Y6 cohort embraced this with gusto, reading everything from The Wimpy Kid to Artichoke Hearts to Anne Frank’s Diary. Which brings us back to the Holocaust. They spent the first five minutes debating how old Anne Frank would be if she were alive today and where she might be living. It was a memorable and emotional discussion.

peter in perilPeter in Peril by Helen Bate is a graphic novel that aims to show how the people swept up in the Holocaust were ordinary people. This is a tame book for a young audience though, and doesn’t go into any detail on the camps or genocide, but instead illuminates the dangers and changes that one Jewish boy went through during the Second World War, hiding from the Nazi’s. Despite the fear and darkness, Peter is one of the lucky ones. Perhaps why the book is subtitled: Courage and Hope in World War Two.

The story is written in first person by Peter, a young boy living in Budapest, who loves football and cake. Like Anne Frank, he too is forced into hiding, but unlike most Jewish people, he is reunited with his parents and his former home by the end of the war.

Because it is told from a young person’s perspective, there is an ignorance to what is actually happening around him – but from the action the reader will understand that Peter survived round-ups of Jewish people by moving hiding places several times, the only constant being a colouring book; he frequently faces hunger and cold. Despite the removal of the more harrowing elements of the Holocaust, the reader will understand that this was a horrific time, challenging and frightening for even the luckiest child.

The novel is in graphic novel/comic book style, which makes it very easy to follow for the most reluctant reader; in fact the book’s pictures working best when they aren’t annotated with incidental dialogue.

This is a true story, and the background of what happened in Budapest during the war is given at the back, as well as a summation of what happened to the real Peter. Many of Peter’s extended family were killed in the death camps, although miraculously he and his parents and baby brother survived and continued to live in Hungary.

My only wish is that the figures involved in deportation were explained. In March 1944, there were more than 800,000 Jews living in Hungary (as a result of annexations from Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia). In May 1944 deportations began and in just eight weeks, 424,000 Jews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. (Yad Vashem statistics). 

You can buy a copy of Peter in Peril here

TomiThere are fewer and fewer survivors of the Holocaust now living, and it’s important to hear their accounts. Tomi Reichental’s Holocaust Story has been retold by Eithne Massey for young readers age 10+. Tomi describes Tomi’s life in Slovakia, at first pretty idyllic, but then it deteriorates rapidly, firstly because of the taunting Anti-semitism from schoolmates, and then from restrictive laws passed forbidding Jewish people to go to school. Then the arrests start, and finally Tomi is captured and sent to Bergen-Belsen. Amazingly, Tomi survived, (although 35 members of his extended family were killed). As above, this is told through the eyes of a child, and so shies away from the absolute horror of Bergen-Belsen, but is still a devastating read, (much more so than Peter in Peril) although Tomi is appropriate for children, in that it explains the Holocaust in a powerful yet simple way.

Told in narrative format, novel-like in its prose, yet with a slight distance to protect the reader, the book describes graphic events – the death in the carriage on route to the camps, the whips of the guards, death and disease within the camps.

There’s a clear balance needed between explaining the truth of what happened – even to young children during the Holocaust – and protecting today’s children from nightmares and fear. And yet, there is also a duty to make sure we and our children ‘never forget’. In a time of rising anti-Semitism again, it is crucial that these true accounts are shared widely, absorbed, and lessons learnt. As Tomi says “I realised that, as one of the last witnesses, I must speak out. I owe it to the victims that their memory is not forgotten.’ We owe it to Tomi to read and understand his story. You can buy Tomi here. 

For Holocaust Memorial Day

“To forget the dead would be akin to killing them a second time.” Elie Wiesel

Teaching children about traumatic events in our collective history can be difficult, and when picking a book on the subject it’s more important than ever to judge content more than appearance. There is fierce debate on how old children should be before they are taught about the Holocaust or other genocides. Teaching the historical context of the Nazis, of death and what’s morally right and wrong can all be taught much earlier, but it’s hard to teach the meaning and mechanics of mass murder before secondary school. Even some adults have a hard time grasping the enormity of it. The national curriculum dictates that the Holocaust should be taught in key stage 3 – Year 7, 8 or 9, which is the first three years of secondary school (ages 11-14).

“Fiction cannot recite the numbing numbers, but it can be that witness, that memory” – Jane Yolen

Firstly, I’ve chosen three works of fiction. They are all picture books, but that doesn’t mean they’re for small children – in fact they are best for age 10+ yrs. I’ve chosen them for their exploration of the Holocaust from different viewpoints, and as starting points for serious discussion about the Holocaust. None of them should be read in isolation, but rather explored after an initial insight into what did happen to the Jewish people during the Second World War.

Benno and the Night of Broken Glass

Benno and the Night of Broken Glass by Meg Wiviott, illustrated by Josee Bisaillon
This is a cat’s eye view of Kristallnacht. Benno is the neighbourhood cat, who visits Sophie on Shabbat, and is fed schnitzel by the Schmidts after church, and gets titbits from the kosher butcher. All is seemingly well. Then gradually Benno realises that there are fewer scraps, and the neighbourhood people are growing ever more impatient, and that there are now new black boots stomping along the pavement. Then Kristallnacht happens, Benno’s paws are sore from the broken glass on the pavement, and Benno doesn’t see Sophie and her family any more, nor Professor Goldfarb. It’s a simplistic animal tale of a neighbourhood changing, but the masked horror of the Holocaust pervades the story. The implied disappearance of the Jewish people of the neighbourhood leaves it up to the reader to imagine what may have prevailed that night. The Afterword explains Kristallnacht in a little more detail, telling what that night was about and what did happen to the Jews in Germany. However, the last paragraph is a little emotive, which is a shame for a page that should remain factual. However, it is a clever introduction to the build-up of the Holocaust in Germany.

Star of Fear

Star of Fear, Star of Hope by Jo Hoestlandt, illustrated by Johanna Kang
Another simplistic story, which belies the terror underneath, is Star of Fear, which tells the narrative from an old lady’s point of view – looking back on those things that she couldn’t comprehend as a little girl. Helen remembers growing up in France after the German invasion of 1942. She remembers her childhood friend Lydia, and the yellow star Lydia was forced to wear on her clothes. It’s a story about friendship, and how little girls can say things to their friends that they don’t mean – and ultimately live to regret. Helen regrets more than most, as in a spontaneous angry outburst she tells Lydia that they are no longer friends, little knowing it was the last time she would ever see her…it is supposed that Lydia was taken away by the Nazis the next day. The simplicity of the text and pictures adds to the poignancy.

whispering town

The Whispering Town by Jennifer Elvgren, illustrated by Fabio Santomauro
Published last year, The Whispering Town tells the story of the Danish Jews through the eyes of a little girl. The Danish story itself is quite remarkable. As a nation Denmark actively resisted the Nazis’ plan to round up the Jewish people, and managed to smuggle a huge percentage of their Jewish population to safety in Sweden. They relied upon the goodness of their people, and The Whispering Town shows how the shopkeepers and neighbours all helped the hidden Jews in one cellar in Gilleleje to escape by boat from the harbour. The illustrations depict the Nazis as menacing, gun-wielding soldiers and the Danish people with simpatico faces. Cleverly, the Jews hiding in the cellar are simply white pen lines on black – a shadow almost. The colours throughout are muted – pale greens, much black and grey – other than the stark red of the Nazi symbol on the soldiers’ shirtsleeves. This may be a story of hope and salvation, but the events happened in a terrible time. My feeling is that it’s important to teach children that there is hope despite the horror of six million Jews and many other people losing their lives during the Holocaust. It is vital that children understand there are pockets of goodness and humanity. If a whole nation can rise up against the Nazis, then it is possible for goodness to overcome. This link describes the Danish efforts well.

usborne holocaust

After a wealth of discussion of story, it is worth consulting some reference too. One such title that sets things out clearly and easily for children is Usborne: The Holocaust. In a matter-of-fact tone, but with excellently precise vocabulary, Susanna Davidson sets out the narrative of the Holocaust, encompassing the roots of anti-Semitism, the Nazi definition of whom they defined as being Jewish, the treatment of other minority groups, the advancement of Germany through Europe, the increasingly harsh treatment of Jews and minorities, before going on to address ghettos, and the final solution. It also covers small acts of defiance in the face of certain death, both from Jews and non-Jews, which is really important. It’s simple to understand, crams a mass of information into short digestible chunks, and does its very best to explain a seemingly inexplicable event. Despite its conciseness, the book does contain graphic information on the killing of Jews, including shooting at mass graves and the death camps. It also quotes people from the time, and includes graphic images, including the painting ‘Gassing’ by Auschwitz survivor David Olere. There are many photographs too, including those of a survivor at the liberation of Belsen. Be warned, this is not a book for young children, but would do well to accompany those studying the Holocaust at Key Stage 3. The afterword throws up some questions that children may ask afterwards, and doesn’t try to answer them, but instead finishes on the note that the Holocaust is not something that should ever be forgotten.

DK Holocaust

I’ve not included a comprehensive review of DK Holocaust, a title that I worked on myself, as sadly, it appears to be unavailable at most good bookstores. However, if you can get a copy it’s an all-encompassing examination of the Holocaust for older children, which I worked on with the superb writer Angela Gluck Wood. I can self-promote shamelessly as I receive no royalties.

Holocaust Memorial Day is on January 27th.

 Usborne Holocaust was very kindly sent to me by Usborne Publishing